Saturday, 16 March 2019

Transgender Education in India

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Transgender Education | Transgender Education in India  with State wise Literacy Rates 

Transgender Education is equally important like others, but on the basis of gender orientation, transgender’s children start facing stigma. This is the duty of administration and school management to ensure an adequate environment in school campuses because there are greater possibilities that different stigmas might be starting to affect the inclusion of transgender children.
Transgender Education plays a vital role in enhancing jobs and economic opportunity for an individual. Education of a child has developed the personality, talent, mental and physical ability to the fullest potential. In India's constitution considered education as the fundamental right for 6 to 14 years children. Every child 6 to 14 years have the right to free and compulsory education of elementary education in a neighbourhood school till completion. India has achieved development and growth. It has improved human development indices such as education, literacy and health. There is an indication that not all disadvantaged groups have shared equally the benefits of growth. Among these, the transgender community in the country is seriously lagging behind on human development indices including education percentage. 

Transgender Education in India

There is 4.9 lakh transgender in India according to Indian census 2011. According to the census, 2011 data on the general community have low literacy levels, only 46% transgender is literate. Which is very less as compared to 74 per cent literacy in the general population. Around 65% to 70 % population identified as transgender lived in rural areas. The highest rate of population in transgender in state Uttar Pradesh 28 % and the lowest rate of transgender in state Punjab 2 %. According to the right to education act (2009), the transgender community comes under the "disadvantaged group". Means transgender have 25 per cent reservation. Under the economic weaker section (EWS).                                    

Transgender Education in India As per Indian Census 2011-

State Transgenders Child (0-6) Literacy
INDIA 487803 54854 56.07%
Uttar Pradesh 137,465 18,734 55.80%
Andhra Pradesh 43,769 4,082 53.33%
Maharashtra 40,891 4,101 67.57%
Bihar 40,827 5,971 44.35%
West Bengal 30,349 2,376 58.83%
Madhya Pradesh 29,597 3,409 53.01%
Tamil Nadu 22,364 1,289 57.78%
Orissa 20,332 2,125 54.35%
Karnataka 20,266 1,771 58.82%
Rajasthan 16,517 2,012 48.34%
Jharkhand 13,463 1,593 47.58%
Gujarat 11,544 1,028 62.82%
Assam 11,374 1,348 53.69%
Punjab 10,243 813 59.75%
Haryana 8,422 1,107 62.11%
Chhattisgarh 6,591 706 51.35%
Uttarakhand 4,555 512 62.65%
Delhi 4,213 311 62.99%
Jammu and Kashmir 4,137 487 49.29%
Kerala 3,902 295 84.61%
Himachal Pradesh 2,051 154 62.10%
Manipur 1,343 177 67.50%
Tripura 833 66 71.19%
Meghalaya 627 134 57.40%
Arunachal Pradesh 495 64 52.20%
Goa 398 34 73.90%
Nagaland 398 63 70.75%
Puducherry 252 16 60.59%
Mizoram 166 26 87.14%
Chandigarh 142 16 72.22%
Sikkim 126 14 65.18%
Daman and Diu 59 10 75.51%
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 47 5 73.81%
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 43 5 73.68%
Lakshadweep 2 0 50.00%

Education for the Transgender in India.

Once Upon a time, Indian transgender people are powerless in the Indian community. Indian Transgender people livelihood occupations are work dancing, and prostitution.
The contemporary usage, Indian transgender has become an ‘umbrella’ terms that is used to describe a wide range of identities and experiences, including but not limited to transgender people, male and female cross-dressers.

 Indian First Transgender School.

First Indian Transgender School, The Sahaj International School in the southern state of Kerala is run by six Indian transgender activists. Currently, the school has open 10 students, including one disabled person, and a migrant. But the main objective of the facility is to eventually provide quality education to India transgender adults who dropped out of school at an early age. The school administration also wants to give vocational training to its  Indian transgender students.

Problems faced by Transgender

The main problems that are being faced by the Indian transgender community are of discrimination, unemployment, lack of educational facilities, homeless, medical facilities, like HIV care and hygiene, depression, hormone pill abuse, tobacco and alcohol abuse, appendectomy, and problems related to marriage and adoption.

Rights of Transgender

Recognizing that non-recognition of the identity of transgender people is a violation of Indian “Articles 14” and Indian “Articles 21” of the Indian  Constitution , the Indian Supreme Court classified them as belonging to a ‘third’ gender in April 2014 and directed the central and the state governments to provide them with reservations in educational institutions by considering them as ‘socially and educationally backward classes of citizens’. Further, Indian Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 provides for inclusive education for Indian transgender students.

Articles 14

Indian Transgender, the first and foremost right that they are deserving of is the right to equality under Article 14 and Indian Article 15 speaks about the prohibition of discrimination on the ground of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

Articles 21

Indian Transgender, Article 21 ensures the right to privacy and personal dignity to all the citizens. Indian Article 23 restrict network in human beings as beggars and other similar forms of forced labour and any contravention of these provisions shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

Legal Recognition for the Third Gender

In recognizing the Transgender category, the Indian Court ruled that fundamental rights are available to the third gender in the same manner as they are to males and females. Further, non-recognition of the Transgender in both criminal and civil statutes such as those relating to marriage, adoption, divorce, etc is discriminatory to the Transgender.

Transgender Health and Sanitation 

Center and State Governments have been directed to take proper measures to provide medical care to Indian Transgender people in the hospitals and also provide them with separate public toilets and other facilities. Further, they have been directed to operate separate HIV/ Sero-surveillance measures for Indian Transgenders.

Transgender Police Reform

Indian Transgender, The policy organization should appoint a continuing committee to constitute Station House Officers and human rights and social activists to promptly investigate reports of gross abuses by the Indian police against kothis and hijras in public areas and police stations, and the guilty policeman is immediately punished.

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